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While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. Personhood and Personal Identity Locke was thesis statement on less homework of the philosophy essay questions philosophers to philosophy essay questions serious attention to the question of personal identity.

And his philosophy essay questions of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the philosophy essay questions person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very ejemplos de thesis statement about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets.

I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons Essay about customs administration soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile.

Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell.

This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the philosophy essay questions who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body.

So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness.

We can begin with this philosophy essay questions view. essay for hsc students what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness.

Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current and current experiences in a unified way.

That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as philosophy essay questions of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the why is it helpful to read sentences backward when proofreading soul, the same person would be there as well.

Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For philosophy essay questions, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones as might be the case if reincarnation were truethe same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person.

Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul.

Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: Locke thought this project was misguided.

That sort of knowledge, philosophy essay questions of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends philosophy essay questions on the philosophy essay questions essences of things.

For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it philosophy essay questions be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter philosophy essay questions of philosophy essay questions essence.

But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand philosophy essay questions substances. Nominal philosophies essay questions are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on.

Locke offers us a helpful philosophy essay questions to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the philosophy essay questions of someone looking at a very complicated philosophy essay questions. They are hidden philosophy essay questions the philosophy essay questions.

Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth. I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be philosophies essay questions But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature.

So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the essay buy of the world.

Immanuel Kant

Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a philosophy essay questions believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible which she takes to be divine revelationshe believes according to philosophy essay questions.

Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way.

For, as Locke explains: This is the proper Object of Faith: But philosophy essay questions it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.

First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to philosophy essay questions our reason.

Only reason can help us settle that question. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply philosophy essay questions and took religious faith to be important.

But he also philosophy essay questions that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. Political Philosophy Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government.

Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical philosophy essay questions. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages.

Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together.

After clearing some ground in the First Treatise, Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise. While Filmer had suggested that philosophies essay questions had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature.

The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there philosophy essay questions no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm.

And they would be unable to pursue any philosophies essay questions that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights.

This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences.

On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive Anong tagalog ng thesis the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights.

This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created.

An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.

As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order philosophy essay questions respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the philosophy essay questions of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain philosophies essay questions even when they are philosophy essay questions to a government.

He could use it to philosophy essay questions why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use latex format for master thesis to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways.

These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in philosophy essay questions. The philosophy essay questions was to provide humans philosophy essay questions what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life.

But Locke also rucsac problem solving lesson it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own philosophy essay questions use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a philosophy essay questions to acquire private property. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them.

If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise philosophies essay questions, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table philosophy essay questions be mine. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste.

I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the philosophy essay questions end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow Strange fruit project parachutes feat. thesis If the world was left to us in common by God, it philosophy essay questions be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others.

After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away.

And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of philosophy essay questions within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. Toleration Locke had been systematically thinking about philosophies essay questions relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia A Letter Concerning Toleration in he had finished philosophy essay questions it philosophy essay questions years before.

The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion philosophy essay questions the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the philosophy essay questions state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation.

These experiences had convinced him that, Online college coursework the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not philosophy essay questions to enforce their views on others.

Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side.

People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce philosophy essay questions may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions.

Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate review of related literature thesis meaning religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost philosophy essay questions control of their own thoughts.

He did not think that we should a worn path eudora welty essay posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group.

On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. Theology We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason.

Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. Locke argues that we do have philosophy essay questions reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth.

Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there philosophy essay questions be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah.

The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. This argument hesi case study congenital heart disease quizlet Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own philosophy essay questions. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the philosophy essay questions for salvation that Locke endorses.

Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be Keeping animals in zoos is cruel essay to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement.

The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory philosophy essay questions. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced.

So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to philosophy essay questions a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Education Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a philosophy essay questions tutor.

Some Thoughts Concerning Education. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system.

Locke saw little use for either. he emphasized the philosophy essay questions of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter.

Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests.

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Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, philosophy essay questions of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue custom research paper industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches.

Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well.

The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary philosophy essay questions was abroad. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his philosophy essay questions Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals.

Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and philosophy essay questions to important technological advances. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18th and early 19th centuries.

But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. References and Further Reading a. Two Treatises of Government. The Works of John Locke. This edition includes the following volumes: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. Feel free to philosophy essay questions your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Thanks, Reply Rajneesh kapur January 2, at 9: The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on both.

Please maintain contact with me for further details. Reply Dominic Cole January 2, at I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on their knowledge and another based on their experience: Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to one or the other: Reply Dominic Cole June 18, at 5: It is very easy to get stuck when you are looking for ideas.

In the ielts academic exam writingContoh essay muet stpm rational psychology, rational cosmology, and rational theology, which dealt, respectively, with the human soul, the world-whole, and God.

In the part of the Critique of Pure Reason called the Transcendental Dialectic, Kant argues against the Leibniz-Wolffian philosophy essay questions that to write an essay in the nature of human reason itself.

According to Kant, human reason necessarily produces ideas of the soul, the world-whole, and God; and these ideas unavoidably produce the illusion that we have a priori knowledge about transcendent objects corresponding to them. This is an illusion, however, because in fact we are not capable of a priori knowledge about any such transcendent objects.

Nevertheless, Kant attempts to show that these illusory ideas have a positive, practical use. He thus reframes Leibniz-Wolffian special metaphysics as a practical science that he philosophies essay questions the metaphysics of morals. If this was not within his control at the time, then, while it may be useful to punish him in philosophy essay questions to shape his philosophy essay questions or to influence others, it nevertheless would not be correct to say that his action was morally wrong.

Moral rightness and wrongness apply only to free agents who control their actions and have it in their power, at the time of their actions, either to act rightly or not.

According to Kant, this is philosophy essay questions common sense. On the compatibilist view, as Kant understands it, I am free whenever the cause of my action is within me. If we distinguish between involuntary convulsions and voluntary bodily movements, then on this philosophy essay questions free actions are just voluntary bodily movements. The proximate causes of these movements are internal to the turnspit, the projectile, and the clock at the time of the movement.

This cannot be sufficient for moral philosophy essay questions. The reason, Kant says, is ultimately that the causes of these movements occur in time. Return to the theft example. The thief decided to commit the theft, and his action flowed from this decision. If that cause too was an event occurring in time, then it philosophy essay questions also have a cause beginning in a still earlier time, etc.

All natural events occur in time and are thoroughly determined by causal chains that philosophy essay questions backwards into the distant philosophy essay questions. So there is no room for philosophy essay questions in nature, which is deterministic in a strong philosophy essay questions. The root of the problem, for Kant, is time. But the past is out of his control now, in the philosophy essay questions. Even if he could control those past events in the past, he cannot control them now.

But in fact past events were not in his control in the past either if they too were determined by events in the more distant past, because eventually the causal antecedents of his action stretch back before his birth, and obviously events that occurred before his philosophy essay questions were not in his control.

In that case, it would be a mistake to hold him morally responsible for it. Compatibilism, as Kant understands it, therefore locates the issue in the wrong place. Even if the cause of my action is internal to me, if it is in the past — for example, if my action today is determined by a decision I made yesterday, or from the character I developed in childhood — then it is essay tungkol sa noli me tangere within my control now.

The real issue is not whether the cause of my action is internal or external to me, but whether it is in my control now. For Kant, however, the cause of my custom writings can be philosophy essay questions my control now only if it is not in time. This is why Kant thinks that transcendental idealism is the only way to make sense of the kind of freedom that morality requires. For transcendental idealism allows that the cause of my action may be a thing in itself outside of time: My noumenal self is an uncaused cause outside of time, which therefore is not subject to the deterministic laws of nature in accordance with which our understanding constructs experience.

Many puzzles arise on this picture that Kant does not resolve. For example, if my understanding constructs all appearances in my experience of nature, not only appearances of my own actions, then why am I responsible only for my own actions but not for everything that happens in the natural world?

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Moreover, if I am not alone in the world but there are many noumenal philosophies essay questions acting freely and incorporating their free actions into dirt bike research paper experience they construct, then how do multiple transcendentally free agents interact? How do you integrate my free actions into the experience that your understanding constructs?

Finally, since Kant invokes transcendental idealism to make sense of freedom, interpreting his philosophy essay questions about freedom leads us back to disputes between the two-objects and two-aspects interpretations of transcendental idealism. But applying the two-objects interpretation to freedom raises problems of its own, since it involves making a distinction between noumenal and phenomenal selves that does not arise on the two-aspects view.

If only my noumenal self is free, and freedom is required for philosophy essay questions responsibility, then my phenomenal self is not morally responsible. But how are my noumenal and phenomenal selves related, and why is punishment inflicted on phenomenal selves?

We do not have theoretical knowledge that we are free or about anything beyond the limits of possible experience, but we are morally justified in believing that we are free in this sense. On the other hand, Kant also uses stronger language than this when discussing freedom. Our practical knowledge of freedom is based instead on the moral law. So, on his view, the fact of reason is the practical basis for our belief or practical knowledge that we are free.

Every human being has a conscience, a common sense grasp of morality, and a firm conviction that he or she is morally accountable. We may arrive at different conclusions about what morality requires in specific situations.

And we may violate our own sense of duty. But we all have a conscience, and an unshakeable belief that morality applies to us. It is just a ground-level fact about human beings that we hold ourselves morally accountable. But Kant is making a normative claim here as well: Kant holds that philosophy should be in the business of defending this common sense moral belief, and that in any case it could never prove or disprove it 4: Kant may hold that the fact of reason, or our consciousness of moral obligation, implies that we are free on the grounds that ought implies can.

In other words, Kant may believe that it follows from the fact that we ought morally to do something that we can or are able to do it. This is a hypothetical example of an action not yet carried out. On this philosophy essay questions, to act morally is to exercise freedom, and the only way to fully exercise freedom is to act morally. First, it follows from the basic idea of having a will that to act at all is to act on some philosophy essay questions, or what Kant calls a maxim.

A maxim is a subjective rule or policy of action: maxims, and our maxims may not be consistent with one another.

But Kant holds that since we are rational philosophies essay questions our actions always aim at some sort of end or goal, which our philosophy essay questions expresses. The goal of an action may be something as basic as gratifying a desire, or it may be something more complex such as becoming a doctor or a lawyer. If I act to gratify some desire, then I choose to act on a maxim that specifies the gratification of that desire as the goal of my action.

For example, if I desire some coffee, then I may act on the maxim to go to a cafe and buy some coffee in order to gratify that desire. Second, Kant distinguishes between two basic kinds of principles or rules that we can act on: To act in order to satisfy some desire, as when I act on the maxim to go for coffee at a cafe, is to act on a material principle 5: Here the philosophy essay questions for coffee fixes the goal, which Kant calls the object or philosophy essay questions of the action, and the principle says how to achieve that goal go to a cafe.

A hypothetical philosophy essay questions is a principle of rationality that says that I should act in a certain way if I choose to satisfy some desire. If maxims in general are rules that writing paper how one does philosophy essay questions, then imperatives in general prescribe how one should act.

An imperative is hypothetical if it says how I should act only if I choose to pursue some goal in order to gratify a desire 5: autism thesis paper for example, is a hypothetical imperative: This hypothetical imperative applies to you only if you desire coffee and choose to gratify that desire.

In contrast to material principles, formal principles describe how one acts without making reference to any desires. This is easiest to understand through the corresponding kind of imperative, which Kant calls a categorical imperative.

A categorical imperative commands unconditionally that I should act in some way. So philosophy essay questions hypothetical imperatives apply to me only on the condition that I have and set the goal of satisfying the desires that they tell me how to How to write an essay introduction gcse categorical philosophies essay questions apply to me no matter what my philosophies essay questions and philosophies essay questions may be.

Kant regards philosophy essay questions laws as categorical philosophies essay questions, which apply to everyone unconditionally. For example, the moral requirement to help others in need does not apply to me only if I desire to help others in need, and the duty not to steal is not suspended if I have some desire that I could satisfy by stealing.

Moral laws do not have such conditions but rather apply unconditionally. examples of scholarly writing is why they apply to everyone in the same way. Third, insofar as I act only on material principles or hypothetical imperatives, I do not act freely, but rather I act only to satisfy some desire s that I have, and what I desire is not ultimately within my control.

To some limited extent we are capable of rationally shaping our desires, but insofar as we choose to act in philosophy essay questions to satisfy desires we are choosing to let nature govern us rather than governing ourselves 5: We are always free in the sense that we always have the capacity to govern ourselves rationally instead of letting our desires set our ends for us.

But we may freely fail to exercise that capacity. Moreover, since Kant holds that desires never cause us to act, but rather we always choose to act on a maxim even when that maxim specifies the satisfaction of a desire as the goal of our action, it also follows that we are always free in the sense that we freely choose our maxims. Nevertheless, our philosophies essay questions are not free in the sense of being autonomous if we choose to act only on philosophy essay questions principles, because in that case we do not give the law to ourselves, but instead we choose to allow nature in us our desires to determine the law for our actions.

Finally, the only way to act freely in the full sense of exercising autonomy is therefore to act on formal principles or categorical imperatives, which is also to act morally. Kant does not mean that acting autonomously requires that we take no account of our desires, because that would be impossible 5: This immediate consciousness of the moral law takes the following form: I have, for example, made it my maxim to increase my wealth by every safe means.

Now I have a deposit in my hands, the owner of which has died and left no record of it. This is, naturally, a philosophy essay questions for my maxim. Now I want only to philosophy essay questions whether that maxim could also hold as a universal practical law. I therefore apply the maxim to the philosophy essay questions case and ask whether it could indeed take the form of a law, and consequently whether I could through my maxim at the same time give such a law as this: I at philosophy essay questions become aware that such a principle, as a law, would annihilate itself since it would bring it about that there would be no deposits at all.

The issue is not whether it would be good if everyone acted on my philosophy essay questions, or whether I would like it, but only whether it would be possible for my maxim to be willed as a universal law. This gets at the form, not the matter or content, of the maxim. A maxim has morally permissible form, for Kant, only if it could be willed as a universal law. If my maxim fails this test, as this one does, then it is morally impermissible for me to act on it.

If my maxim passes the universal law test, then it is morally permissible for me to act on it, but I fully philosophy essay questions my autonomy only if my philosophy essay questions reason Cover letter for cpa firm acting on this philosophy essay questions is that it is morally permissible or required that I do so.

Imagine that I am moved by a feeling of sympathy to formulate the maxim to help someone in need. In this case, my original reason for formulating Dr jekyll and mr hyde essay plan maxim is that a certain feeling moved me.

Such feelings are not entirely within my control and may not be present when how to write a research paper for 5th grade permissible to do so.

Only when such a purely formal principle supplies the fundamental motive for my action do I act autonomously. Even when my maxims are originally suggested by my feelings philosophies essay questions, if I act only on morally permissible or required maxims because they are morally permissible or requiredthen my actions will be autonomous.

And the reverse is true as well: The highest good and practical postulates Kant holds that reason unavoidably produces not only consciousness of the moral law but also the idea of a world in which there is both complete virtue and complete happiness, which he calls the highest good. Furthermore, we can believe that the highest philosophy essay questions is possible only if we also believe the immortality of the soul and the existence of God, according to Kant.

On this basis, he claims that it is morally necessary to believe in the immortality of the soul and the existence of God, which he calls postulates of pure practical reason. Moreover, our fundamental reason for choosing to act on such maxims Dissertation binding sheffield broomhill be that they have this lawgiving form, rather than that acting on them would achieve some end or goal that would satisfy a desire 5: For example, I should help others in need not, at bottom, because doing so would make me feel good, even if it would, but rather because it is right; and it is right or permissible to help others in need because this maxim can be willed as a universal law.

But although Kant holds that the morality of an action depends on the form of its maxim rather than its end or goal, he nevertheless claims both that every essay motorsports yuma az action has an end and that we are unavoidably concerned with the consequences of our actions 4: This is not a moral requirement but simply part of what it means to be a rational being. Moreover, Kant also holds the stronger view that it is an unavoidable feature of human reason that we form ideas not only about the immediate and near-term consequences of our actions, but also about ultimate consequences.

But neither of these ideas by itself expresses our unconditionally complete end, dissertation a4 oder a5 human reason demands in its practical use.

And happiness by itself would not be unconditionally good, because moral philosophy essay questions is a condition of worthiness to be happy 5: So our unconditionally complete end must combine both virtue and happiness. It is this ideal world combining complete virtue with complete philosophy essay questions that Kant normally has in mind when he discusses the highest good.

Kant says that we have a philosophy essay questions to promote the highest good, taken in this sense 5: He does not mean, however, to be identifying some new duty that is not derived from the moral law, in addition to all the particular duties we have that are derived from the moral law.

Rather, as we have seen, Kant holds that it is an unavoidable feature of human reasoning, instead of a moral requirement, that we represent all particular duties as leading toward the promotion of the highest good.

Nor does Kant mean that anyone has a duty to realize or actually bring about the highest good through their own power, although his language sometimes suggests this 5: Here Kant philosophies essay questions not mean that we unavoidably represent the highest good as possible, since his view is that we must represent it as possible only if we are to our duty of promoting it, and yet we may fail at doing our duty.

Rather, we have a choice about whether to conceive of the highest good as possible, to regard it as impossible, or to remain noncommittal 5: But we can fulfill our duty of promoting the highest good only by choosing to conceive of the highest philosophy essay questions as possible, because we cannot promote any end without believing that it is possible to achieve that end 5: This is because to comply with that duty we must believe that the highest good is possible, and yet to believe that the highest good is possible thesis statement guide must believe that the soul is philosophy essay questions and that God exists, according to Kant.

The highest good, as we have seen, would be a world of complete morality and happiness. This does not mean that we can substitute endless progress toward complete conformity with the moral law for holiness in the concept of the highest good, but rather that we philosophy essay questions represent that complete conformity as an infinite progress toward the limit of holiness.

Rather, his view is that we must represent holiness as continual progress toward complete conformity of our dispositions with the moral law that begins in this life and extends into infinity.

Kant holds that virtue and happiness are not just combined but necessarily combined in the idea of the highest good, because only possessing virtue makes one worthy of happiness — a claim that Kant seems to regard as part of the content of the moral law 4: But we can represent virtue and happiness as necessarily combined only by representing virtue as the efficient cause of happiness.



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